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自考英语:英语词汇考前大串讲[1](含下载) kira86 于2008-03-25发布 l 已有人浏览 第一讲: 1.考试题形式分为:Ⅰ.选择题(30分):完全是考书中的例子,理论与例子的结合,也就是 ‘Theory’和 ‘Examp

第一讲:

1.考试题形式分为:

Ⅰ.选择题(30分):完全是考书中的例子,理论与例子的结合,也就是 ‘Theory’和 ‘Example’ 的结合。

Ⅱ.填空(10分):考特例,不是考简单的‘Examples﹑Theory’而是考‘

Exceptions’ .

Ⅲ.(10分) 考试内容:

ⅰ.Types of meaning changes: 词意变化的种类

ⅱ.Types of meaning : 词义的种类,如:概念意义,联想意义,情感意义等。

ⅲ.Languages branches :语系与语族, 语系如:印欧语系;语族如:一个大的语

系下分为那几个小的语族,如:日尔曼语族,斯堪的纳维亚语族等。

ⅳ. Feathers of idioms: 习语的特点

Ⅳ.(10分) 考试内容:

ⅰ.Types of Bound Morphemes: 粘着词素的种类

ⅱ.Types of Word Formations: 构词法的种类

ⅲ.Types of Meaning: 词义的种类

ⅳ.Types of Meaning of Idioms:习语涵义的种类

Ⅴ. 名词解释 (10分):

Ⅵ. 简答题 (12分):

ⅰ.比较题:两种理论/概念之间的区别就叫比较题,比如说‘概念意义与联想意

义有何区别,粘着词素与派生词根有何区别,两种事物与两种理论之间的区别等。

ⅱ.名词解释扩展题:难的名词解释派生的简答题, 如:Affected Meaning 名词

解释起来太长了,放在简答题里,就成为: What is Affected Meaning,

briefly exemplify it.

ⅲ.Optional: 可考可不考的题,往往是给出名词让你举例子

Ⅶ.分析题(18分):给出例子,让你用理论加以分析。

二. 串讲内容:

Introduction 部分:

Lexicology 这门课算哪一种学科的分支:

Lexicology is a branch of linguistics.

Lexicology和那些重要的学科建立了联系:

1)Morphology 2) Semantics 3) Stylistics 4) Etymology 5) Lexicography

研究lexicology 的两大方法:

1) Diachronic approach : 历时语言学

2) Synchronic approach : 共时语言学

e.g. wife

纵观历时语言学的方法论,woman 词义的变化算是词义变化的哪一种模式?

Woman 的词义的变化算Narrowing or specialization

第一章部分:

What is word ?

词具有哪些特点?

词的特点也就是对词的名词解释。

1) A word is a minimal free form of a language;

2) A sound unity or a given sound ;

3) a unit of meaning;

4) a form that can function alone in a sentence.

以上词的四个特点也就是词的名词解释

词的分类(classification of a word)

词根据发音可以分为哪两种词?或者说词根据拼写可以分为哪两类词?

1) simple words 2) complex words

单音节词例子:

e.g. Man and fine are simple

多音节词例子:

e.g. Management, misfortune, blackmail

management 可以次划分为manage 和 -ment

misfortune 可以次划分为mis- 和 fortune

blackmail 次划分为black 和 mail

What is the relationship between sound and meaning?

1)There is ‘no logical relationship between the sound and actual thing.

e.g. dog. cat

2)The relationship between them is conventional.

3) In different languages the same concept can be represented by

different sounds.

What is relationship between sound and form?

1)The written form of a natural language is the written record of

the oral form. Naturally the written form should agree with the oral

form, such as English language.

2)This is fairly true of English in its earliest stage i.e. Old English

3)With the development of the language, more and more differences

occur between the two.

What are the great changes that causes illogical relationship or

irregularity between sound and form?

1) The internal reason for this is that the English alphabet was

adopted from the Romans, which does not have a separate letter to

represent each sound in the language so that some letters must do

double duty or work together in combination.

2) Another reason is that the pronunciation has changed more rapidly

than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn far

apart.

3) A third reason is that some of the differences were created by the

early scribes.

4) Finally comes the borrowing, which is an important channel of

enriching the English vocabulary.

要记住以上四句话中的关键词:

1) influenced by Romans

2) Pronunciation changed

3) early scribes

4) borrowing

你能不能举出外来语对英语发音,拼写造成不一致的例子有哪些?

e.g. stimulus (L) ,fiesta (Sp) ,eureka (Gr), kimono (Jap)

外来语对英语造成的最大的影响就是‘sound and form ’不一致。

What is vocabulary?

Vocabulary refers to the total number of the words in a language, but

it can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period.

Vocabulary also refers to all the words of a given dialect, given book,

a given discipline and the words possessed by an individual person.

Classification of Words (本课的一个重点, 年年考试都考)

What is the classification of words? How to classify words in

linguistics?

Three criteria :

1) By use of frequency

2) By notion

3) By origin

By use of frequency 可划分为:

1) The basic word stock

2) Nonbasic word vocabulary

By notion 可划分为:

1) Content word

2) Functional word

Content words are also known as notional words . (Content words 的别称)

Functional words are also known as empty words, or form words. (

Functional words 的别称)

Functional words possesses a characteristic of basic word stock, i.e.

stability
According to Stuart Robertson ,et al (1957),* (年年考试必考) the nine

functional words , namely ,and , be , have , it , of , the , to , will

,you

What are the characteristics of basic word stock?

1) All national character

2) Stability

3) Productivity

4) Polysemy

5) Collocability

要把握住‘All national character’的词,就是和我们日常生活息息相关的,最普通的词

稳定性是基本词的一个很大特点,请你举例说明?

e.g. man, woman , fire, water …

e.g. machine, video, telephone …

e.g. bow, chariot , knight

Stability is relative, not absolute.

根据词的use frequency 划分出的基本词之外,还有一类词叫作None basic

vocabulary, 非基本词有几大特点?或者是几大分类?

1) Terminology

e.g. sonata, algebra

2) Jargon

e.g. Bottom line ( Jargon )

3) Slang

e.g. smoky, bear ( Slang )

4) Argot

e.g. persuader

5) Dialectal words

e.g. station ( AusE = ranch )

bluid ( ScotE= blood)

6) Archaisms

e.g. wilt (will)

7) Neologisms

e.g. email ( Neologisms )

beaver 是girl 的slang 表达方式,但是二者之间存在着Stylistic difference

Which constitutes the larger number among English vocabulary, content

words or functional words ?

Answer : Content words

What is native words?

Answer : (1) By origin, English words can be classified into native

words and borrowed words.

(2) Native words are words brought to Britain in the fifth century by

the German tribes: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, thus know as

Anglo-Saxon words.

(3) Words of Anglo-Saxon origin are small in number ,amounting to

roughly 50,000 to 60,000, but they form the mainstream of the basic

word stock and stand at the core of the language

什么叫borrowed words?

Answer: (1) words taken over from foreign languages are know as

borrowed words or loan words or borrowings in simple terms.

(2) It is estimated that English borrowings constitute 80

percent of the modern English vocabulary

(3) The English language has vast debts .In any dictionary

some 80% of the entries are borrowed.

什么叫Denizens?

Denizens are words borrowed early in the past and now are well

assimilated into the English language. In other words they have come to

conform to the English way of pronunciation and spelling, such as port

from portus (L).

‘Denizens’的例子都要记:Port from portus (L), cup from cuppa (L),

shift from skipta (ON), shirt from skyrta (ON), change from changier

(F), pork from porc (F).

什么叫Translation-loans ?

Translation-loans are words and expressions formed form the existing

material in the English language but modeled on the patterns taken from

another language, such as ‘ long time no see from haojiumeijian (Ch)

什么叫Semantic-loans ?

words of this category are not borrowed with reference to the form ,But

their meaning are borrowed , in other words, English has borrowed a new

meaning for an existing word in the language ,such as the word dream

,which originally meant ’joy’ and ‘music ’, and its modern meaning was

borrowed later from the Norse.

第二章:The development of the English vocabulary

The Indo-European Language Family

It is assumed that the world has approximately 3,000(some put it

5,000)languages ,which can be grouped into roughly 300 language

families on the basis of similarities in their basic word stock and

grammar . (重点:语系划分的标准)

What is the criteria to divide language families ?

The answer : 1. the basis of similarities in their basic word stock

2. grammar

(重点)The Balto-Slavic comprises such modern languages as(选择题内容:)

Prussian, Lithuanian , Polish ,Czech, Bulgarian ,Slovenian and Russian.

‘Indo-European’ 两大分支:

1.Eastern set

2.Western set

Eastern set: Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Albanian

Western set : Celtic, Italic , Hellenic, Germanic.

In the western Set, Greek is the modern language derived from Hellenic.

Celtic :Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Breton

The five Romance languages, namely ,Portuguese, Spanish, French,

Italian , Roumanian all belong to the Italic.

The Germanic family consists of the four Northern European Languages:

Norwegian ,Icelandic, Danish and Swedish ,which are generally known as

Scandinavian languages. Then there is German, Dutch ,Flemish and

English.

With Vikings’ invasion, many Scandinavian words came into the English

language.

It is estimated that at least 900 words of Scandinavian origin have

survived in modern English.

Old English has a vocabulary of about 50,000 to 60,000 words. It was a

highly inflected language just like modern German.

重点句: Modern English began with the establishment of printing in

England


古英语最大的模糊性的概念来自于 (scripts )

古英语正因为出现印刷术才打破了 ( early scripts)

Sound and form 真正达到统一是在什么时期?

.Sound and form reached their concord in ( Modern English

period )

如果从词汇变化的角度而言,Modern English 又可以细划分为 early period ,

modern period.

*现代英语早期阶段属于哪一种文化现象的发展时期 (重要的选择或填空内容)

Early modern English appeared in the Renaissance

Modern English period 有什么样的外来语的进入?

The Latin words swarmed into English in early modern English period

现代英语时期,英语词汇大量丰富还有另外一个原因是 (colonization)

The richness of Modern English in vocabulary also arises from

(Colonization )

The English language has evolved from a synthetic language to the

present analytic language ( 重要选择或填空内容)

Growth of Present-day English Vocabulary

Three main sources of new words :

1)The rapid development of modern science and technology

2)Social, economic and political changes;

3)The influence of other cultures and language

2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development

1)creation 2) semantic change 3) borrowing

2)Semantic change (还包括外来词的Semantic loans )

Elevation, degradation, extension, narrowing, transfer

外来词可以被称作borrowed words , 因此又可以被称作 .

重点句:borrowed words are also known as loaned words .

恢复古英语的用词是美国英语的一大特色

Reviving archaic or obsolete words also contributes to the growth of

English vocabulary though quite insignificant. This is especially true

of American English.

英语从synthetic language 发展到present analytical language 是在英语的哪

一个阶段完成的?

答案:Modern English period

文艺复兴时期,恰逢英语发展的哪个阶段?

答案:Early Modern English period

在英语发展过程 在哪个阶段出现三语鼎立的现象?

French, Latin, English in Middle English period

easel, port, freight, 出现于英语发展的哪个阶段,属于哪一种外来词的引入?

答案:Middle English , Dutch

在英语发展的某一个阶段,有一种语言进入英语,它一共带来了2500 个词汇,这

种语言是什么?

答案:Dutch (前年考题)

据现代语言学家的统计,英语中目前所占本族词的数量有多少?

答案:50,000 to 60,000

他们的来源是(Anglo_Saxon tongue )

第二次世界大战以后,大量外来词进入英语中,如:Mao jackets , black belt

, kongfu, 这些词属于英语词汇发展的Present - day English Vocabulary

注意:第二章出大题的内容无非就是请简述印欧语系的发展与组成。

Old English 和 Middle English 最大的striking distinction 存在于哪一个方面?

答案:Old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was

one of leveled endings.

文艺复兴时期,哪两种文化得到了复兴,这对英语词汇的丰富具有什么样的影响?

答案:Greek , Roman culture

某些希腊词被引入到了英语是在什么阶段?

答案:Modern English

十六世纪,有一种新工业出现对词汇的发展产生重要的影响,这是哪一种industry?

答案:Printing

这导致sound and form 出现concord , 出现standardization.
第三章复习:

The smallest unit in the English language refers to (morphemes)

The minimal free form in the English language refers to (word)

In the plural form changing, some of the words will take internal vowel

change , this internal vowel change is called (allomorphs)

Deer 复数没有变,还是deer, sheep 复数没有变,还是sheep, 因此,这种变化被

称作(zero derivation)

名词解释:

Morphemes : The minimal meaningful units in a language are known as

morphemes.
In other words, the morphemes is ’the smallest functioning unit in composition of words Allomorphs : The alternative morphs are known as allomorphs,
e.g.
the morpheme of plurality {-s} has a number of allomorphs in different

sound context, e.g. in cats in bags, matches
It can be realized by the change of an internal vowel as in foot-feet,

man-men, goose-geese or by zero morphs as in deer-deer, fish-fish

简答题: what are the types of morphemes ? ( 答简答题时,名词解释)

答案:Free morphemes and bound morphemes

Free morphemes :
1) Free morphemes are independent of other morphemes

and are considered to be free.

2) These morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used

as free grammatical units in sentences.

3) They are identical with root words, as each of them consists of a

single free root words ,as each of them consists of a single free root

.
4) free morphemes are free roots.

bound morphemes: 1) Morphemes which cannot occur as separate words are

bound..

2) They are bound to other morphemes to form words.

3) Bound morphemes include two types: bound root and affix

affix 分为两类: inflectional and derivational affixes.

Inflectional affixes : Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate

grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional

morphemes.

Derivational affixes: 1)derivational affixes are affixes added to

other morphemes to create now words.
2) Derivational affixes can be further divided into prefixes and

suffixes.

root : 1) a root is the basic form of a word which cannot be further

analyzed without total loss of identity.

2) the root, whether free or bound, generally carries the main

component of meaning in a word

3) a ’root is that part of a wordform that remains when all

inflectional and derivational affixes have been removed’

stem : 1) a stem may consist of a single root morpheme as in iron or of

two root
morphemes as in a compound like handcuff.

2) It can be a root morpheme plus one or more affixational

morphemes as in
mouthful, underestimate.

3) Therefore, a stem can be defined as a form to which affixes of

any kind can
be added.

问题:Stem 和 root 有一个最大的区别在哪里? ( 连着两年没有考过)

答案: a stem can be defined as a form to which affixes of any kind can


be added.

问题:请加以区别下面两个词的特征: nation , dict 请加以理论的分析?

Both nation and dict belong to roots, nation is free root, which can

function alone in a sentence,

Nation as a free root, has complete meaning, when both prefixes and

suffixes attached to it are removed, nation as a free root, still

remains

Dict is a bound root, which can not function alone grammatically , dict

carries the fundamental meaning of words, dict has to combine with the

other morphemes to create new words , for example , dictionary ,

contradiction .

问题:分析下面一句话: He is much more cleverer than any other one in

the village,
too heads are better than one.

请从构词角度分析以上的例子,

cleverer , better

cleverer (-er : inflectional affixes )

better ( good , well 的特殊变化) It is allomorph of good and well.

第四章:

问题:在英语中,主要的构词法分为哪几种?

答案:有七种:

1) Affixation 2) Compounding 3) conversion 4) shortening

5) clipping 6) acronymy 7) blending

有三种最常用: affixation , compounding and conversion

问题:由专有名词变为普通名词是词义变化的哪一种?

答案:Extension
问题:由普通名词变为专有名词是词义变化的哪一种模式?

答案:Narrowing

问题:Affixation 又被称为什么? 它分为哪两类?

答案:Affixation is also known as derivation

Affixation falls into two subclasses : prefixation and suffixation

要点: 有哪些前缀属于什么样的类别:

a-, non, ir : negative prefixes

de- , dis- ( 既属于negative , 也属于reversative prefixes )

mal-, pseudo-, mis- : pejorative prefixes

super , sur-, extra : prefixes of degree or size

anti-, contra-, counter-, pro- : prefixes of orientation and attitude

trans-, fore- tele- : locative prefixes

fore-, post- : prefixes of time and order

bi-, uni-, semi- : number prefixes

pan-, vice - : miscellaneous prefixes

suffixation :

1. Noun suffixes

1) Denominal nouns

2) Deverbal nouns

3) De-adjective nouns: ity, -ness,

4) Noun and adjective suffixes

注意Compounding, acoronymy , blending , conversion , clipping 的名词解释.

要点: 复合词分为哪三类: 1)solid 2) hyphenated 3) open

简答题: what are the characteristics of compounds ?

What are the difference between compounds and free phrases ?

答案:
1) phonetic features

2) Semantic features

3) Grammatical features

最常见的三种词性 : 1) Noun compound 2) Adjective compounds 3) verb

compounds

问题:在名词性复合词中有哪几种有多产性, 哪两种不具有多产性?

在形容性复合词当中, 哪三类有多产性?

动词性复合词是靠哪两种方法复合在一起的?

*名词解释:Conversion ( 重点,还没考过)

Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one

class to another class.

Functional shift = conversion

Zero-derivation ( 选择或填空要点)

Adjective to noun : (1) full conversion (2) partial conversion

问题:形容词转为动词分为哪两类?

答案:由Adjective to verbs : (1) Transitive (2) Intransitive

简答题: 形容词变动词的三种类别( 没考过)

问题:请你举出由conjunction 变为noun 的一个例子?

答案: Ifs and buts

blending are also called blends or portmanteau words ( 选择或填空要点)

问题:‘blending’ 分为哪四类合成词?

1. head + tail
2. head + head
3. head + word
4. word + tail

问题: 绝大多数blending 都是什么词性?

答案:nouns

The overwhelming majority of blends are nouns;
very few are verbs and adjectives are even fewer.

问题:截短法clipping 分为哪四类?

答案:There are four common types of clipping :

1) Front clipping

2) Back clipping

3) Front and back clipping

4) Phrase clipping

要注意clipping 的例子

有一个特殊变化:fridge ( refrigerator 截短之后在i, g 中间加一个d ) ,
还有拼写发生变化,比如说:coke ( coca cola)

问题:什么是acronymy?

Acronymy is the process of forming new words by joining the initial
letters of neames of social and political organizations or special
noun phrases and technical terms

Acronymy 包含两类:

1) initialisms (不发音)

e.g. BBC, VOA, TB

2) acronyms (形成新的发音)

e.g. CORE, TEFL
`
Words from proper names 有四大类:

1. Names of people

e.g. bobby : Names of people

2. Names of places

e.g. champagne, rugby

3. Names of books

e.g. utopia

4. Tradenames

e.g. cabal

问题:以下的词采用哪种构词法?

e.g. diagnosis ---?diagnose : (先有诊断的名词,后有了诊断的动词,

这种构词被称作) backformation

bloomers (它的构词法满足哪一种词法): 属于Words from proper names 中的Names of people

VJ-day :(这种构词法是由哪一种构成的)属于Initialisms 中的Acronyms

Pop: (采用哪一种构词法构成的) : clipping

Sitcom : blending

FORTRAN : head + head

Bath (名词) ----- bathe ( 动词)

Bath 和 bathe 存在一种什么关系? ( Conversion )

重点句:Conversion is also known as functional shift.

问题:Noun + v-ing, 这类词构成的词是什么词 ?

答案:compounding

问题:Record-breaking , 它是属于复合法中的哪一种?

答案:Adjectives compounds

问题:请说出Adjectives compounds 中多产性强的有几类?

答案: 有三类
1) n + v-ing
2) n + a
3) n + v-ed

问题:up-bringing 是属于哪一类构词法构成的词?

答案:noun compounds (adv + v-ing )

问题:复合词与自由短语的最大的区别是什么?

答案:区别也就是复合词的特点:

1) Phonetic features

2) Semantic features

3) Grammatical features

问题:red meat, green horn,它们是复合词的哪一个特点构成的词?

答案 :Semantic features (也就是从构词上推不出它的涵义)

问题:Compounding又被称作什么法?

答案:composition

问题:由compounding 或composition 构成的词被称作什么?

答案:compounds

问题:复合词分为几类?分别举例加以说明?

答案:分为三类:solid, hyphenated, open

solid : blackmail , blackmarket

hyphenated: brother-in-law,

open : green horn , green hand

问题:当形容词转为动词时分为几类:Adjectives to verbs

答案:有三类:

1) Both transitive and intransitive
2) Only transitive
3) Only intransitive

问题:由人的行为所造成的结果进行转类之后,转成了什么词性?

答案:verb to noun
e.g. catch

问题:形容词可不可以转类,转成名词分为几个类别?

答案:分为两类:

1) full conversion e.g. black , white

2) partial conversion e.g. the rich , the poor


问题:名词再变成名词分为几类?分别举例说明?

答案:1) Concrete 2) abstract

e.g.
host : (可加-ess 变成具体名词)

friend : (加-ship 可变成抽象名词)


问题:(只作了解) A word is unity of sound and meaning ( true or false )

答案:true ( 可从word 的四个特点看出)

问题:Most loaned words are borrowed from foreign languages without any

change in sound and spelling. (true or false).

答案: true

外来词分为四类:

1) Denizens

e.g. cup from cuppa , port form portus

2) Aliens

e.g. garage , decor

3) Translation -loans

e.g. long time no see

4) Semantic- loans.

e.g. dream


判断对错题:

1.Conversion means transfer of a word from one class to anther . (true

or false )

答案:true

2. The relationship between a word symbol and its meaning is mostly

arbitrary and conventional.
(true or false ).

答案:true

3.a word used in different contexts may contrast with different

antonyms .(true or false)

答案:true

4. an allomorph is any of the variant forms of morphemes. (true or

false )

答题: false

重点句:A word which has more than one meaning can have more than one

antonym.

E.g. fast (fast 在不同的语境中对应着不同的概念)

选择题:

Chinese is our native language, but we can not say the Chinese is our ? .

a)mother tongue b) first language c) mother language d) official language

答案:C)mother language ( 不存在的一种说法)


问题:以下的哪一个词 is not an expression used by American?

A) tube B) bar C) Mailbox D) Congress

答案:tube ( 只有英国人把地铁叫tube , 美国人把它叫作subway, underground )

问题:‘smog’它是‘smoke , fog’ 合在一起形成的词,它是采用了下面哪一

种构词法?

A) clipping B ) compounding C) blending D) backformation

答案: C ) blending

问题:以下的词哪些属于:A)simple word B) compound word
C) derived word D) shortened form.

e.g. goldmine (compound word )

bike ( shortened form )

process (derived word : cess 是一个不可分割的bound root,pro 它

是一个前缀)

supermarket ( derived word )

language ( simple word )

driver ( derived word )

dorm ( shortened form, clipping )

modernize ( derivation )

blackboard ( compound )

bus ( shortened form ) (omnibus )

(可能会出现的题)What is the difference between content words and

functional words, illustrate your point with examples ? ( 未考过) 

注意:答题时先答名词解释,再加以例子说明。

(复习要考虑的题) What is the difference between denotative meaning and

connotative meaning?

(论述题) What are the fundamental features of the basic word stock of

the English vocabulary? ( 未考过)

答题时先答名词解释basic word stock 再答五大特点并配以例子加以说明。

(关键答好第一个特点: ‘All national character , 它又分为五个特点) 

前四章复习的内容:

问题:Which of the following words is not formed through clipping?

A) dorm B) Motel C) gent D) zoo

答案:Motel: (blending)

问题:Old English has vocabulary of about how many words ?

答案:50,000 to 60,000

问题:词素分为自由词素和粘着词素,自由词素又被称作自由词根,粘着词素

分为哪两类?

答案:粘着词素分为:Bound root 和 affixes

选择题或填空:

Besides French words, English also absorb as many as 2,500 words in the

Middle English Period. (Dutch )

A word is a symbol that B .

A ) is used by same community
B) represents something else in the world
C) both simple and complex in nature
D) Show different ideas in different sounds

The opposite of semantic elevation in meaning change is called

degradation or pejoration.

Pronouns and numerals enjoy nationwide use and stability, but has limited
Productivity

问题:以下的这些词是粘着词素吗, 以下的这些词是什么样的构词法?

1) heart and soul ( Adverbial in nature )

2) father - male parent ( conceptual meaning )

3) City-bred ( noun + v-ed )

4) Lip-reading - lip read (backformation )

5) headache (compound n + v )

6) antecedent ( 下划线的这一部分是什么: bound morphemes )

7) preview ( prefix : 前缀)

8) receive ( bound root )

9) called ( inflectional affixes )

>>点击下载自考英语词汇考前大串讲 http://www.en8848.com.cn/batch.download.php?aid=1834

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自考英语:英语词汇考前大串讲1 4 a form that can function alone in a 不一致的例子有哪些?第一讲: sentence. e.g. stimulus L fiesta Sp eureka Gr1.考试题形式分为: 以上词的四...

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